4. Kadal konda Thennadu

“Pakruli atrudan panmalai adukkath kumarikodum kodumkadal kolla vada disai imayavum gangayum konda thendisai aanda thennavan vaali”

People usually walk  away when ever I took sangam literature as a proof, thinking that it was just a random literary work for Tamils.
Let me tell you a story.

In early nineteenth century, the European ships [Arnhem 1662, Bredenhof 1752, Doddington 1755, Grosvenor 1784, HMS Sirus 1810, Magicienne 1810, Arniston 1815, RIMS Warren Hasting], traveled through the Indian ocean coast of South Africa especially to India and Australia frequently encountered accidental grounding or shipwrecks in Indian ocean. Wait, how could a ship stop in a deep ocean?? Considering the political importance of Indian ocean, various micro studies where conducted at that time. After many research, they concluded that the ships are grounded by crashing against some of the peaks of a large mountain range under the Indian ocean which is vertically extended from Srilanka in the downward direction. Thus this mountain concept is then discussed worldwide and many European researchers had came to Srilanka and Tamilnadu in search of more evidences. Sangam literature has given them many reference regarding the diversity of the mountain range from the story of a sunken Tamil land south of present Tamilakam mentioned as kadal konda thennadu.

Kadal konda thennadu / Kumarikandam
Geography of Kumarikandam explained in Sangam Literature

Lemuria, Atlantis, Kumarikandam were the name given this hypothesized land bridge in the later period. There were many scientific theories all share a common belief that a  continent existed in ancient times and sank beneath the ocean as a result of a geological, often cataclysmic change such as pole shift.
I will explain some of them.

1. Postulation by Philip Sclater

In 1864, “The Mammals of Madagascar” by zoologist and biogeographer Philip Sclater appeared in The Quarterly Journal of Science. He studies and classified lemurs of Madaascar and puzzled by the presence of their fossils in Madagascar, Papua guinea and India, but not in Africa or Middle East. He explained anomalies of the mammal fauna of Madagascar  by supposing that India, Australia and Madagascar had once been a part of large continent of which Sclater proposed the name Lemuria!

2. Parallelism by Melchior Neumayr

The acceptance of Darwinism led scientists to seek to trace the diffusion of species from their points of evolutionary origin. Biologists frequently postulated submerged land masses to account for populations of similar land-based species now separated by barriers of water. The first systematic attempt was made by Melchior Neumayr in his book Erdgeschichte in 1887. He discussed the possible submerged land bridge connecting Africa, India and Australia to account for the present distribution of species.

3. Promulgation by Ernst Haeckel

After gaining some acceptance within the scientific community, the concept of Lemuria began to appear in the works of other scholars. Ernst Haeckel, a Darwinian taxonomist, proposed Lemuria as an explanation for the absence of “missing link” fossil records. Locating the origins of the human species on this lost continent, he claimed the fossil record could not be found because it sank beneath the sea.

4. Theosophism by Helene Blavatsky

Theosophy is a religious movement established by Helena Blavatsky, played a significant role in bringing knowledge of South Asian philosophies to Western countries, as well as in encouraging cultural pride in various South Asian nations. A variety of prominent artists and writers have also been influenced by her book The Secret Doctorine . Most notably William Scott Elliot talk about  Lemuria in The Story of Atlantis (1896) and The Lost Lemuria (1904). Further elaboration was provided by Rudolf Steiner in Atlantis and Lemuria (1904).
Annie Besant further developed the model in Man:Whence,  How and Whither (1913). The core of all these works points to lost Lemurian concepts.

5. Lumurian village of Mount Shasta

California’s Mount Shasta centered on a hidden city (Telos) of advanced beings from the lost continent of Lemuria. In 1899, Frederick Spencer Oliver published A Dweller on Two  Planets, which claimed that survivors from Lemuria were living in or on Mount Shasta. Oliver’s Lemurians lived in a complex of tunnels beneath the mountain and occasionally were seen walking the surface dressed in white robes. In 1908, Adelia H. Taffinder published A Fragment of the Ancient Continent of Lemuria connecting Lemuria to California. In 1925 a writer by the name of Selvius wrote “Descendants of Lemuria: A Description of an Ancient Cult in America” which was entirely about the mystic Lemurian village at Mount Shasta. Even today the belief that Lemurians inhabit the mountain is still very popular, and anyone visiting the local bookstores will likely be surprised by the number of texts on the subject.

But these ideas has been rendered obsolete by modern theories of plate tectonics and continental drift. But we must view science as changing concept, when science advances to next level, the world adjusted to it by changing their concepts. May be science come up with a better idea next time and people are gonna admit that also. Provided no marine excavation or detailed studies has done on this field, It is not fair to attack Kumarikandam theory only on the basis present day science. We need a multi dimensional approach. So I wish to decode various myths, legends, folk stories to see how they related to Kumarikandam.

Every civilization across the world has a ancient flood myth. The number of flood stories across the world is estimated to be about five hundred. Tamils, Chinese, Jews, Babylonians, Sumerians, Mesopotamians, Greeks, Mayans are the prominent ancient cultures and everyone has their own flood stories.

6. Flood story in Sangam Literature

Sangam literatute mentioned a huge land mass of Tamilakam submerged under thenkadal (Indian ocean). This land is believed to be the birth place of Tamil. The lord Shiva and Lord Murugan give their lessons to Tamils in Merumalai and Kavadapuram of Kumarikandam as per sangam literature. This land was later submerged by sea and its people were perished in large numbers. This was believed to be happen at the time of Murugan and he saved a crowd of  people to escape from flood and moved to Lanka. The name of Kumarikandam was given by Murugan after the deluge.
Kumarikandam -> Kumbalai Maritha Kandam (land were a crowd of people perished)
Hence he not only named submerged land mass as Kumarikandam, but also named himself as kumaran meaning descendant of  perished people of Kumarikanadam. Still today, Tamil people used  ‘kumaran’ and ‘kumari’ as common names respectively for men and women even though they are not aware of the fact that it was a act of preserving the history of deluge. There is also a ancient tradition among Tamils to pay yearly remembrance services to the dead people of the deluge, known as mahalaya amavasi derived from maha paralaya amavasi.
Also the southern direction is considered as direction of death in Tamil culture afterwards.

7. Genesis flood narrative in Bibilical Hebrew

Noah was a righteous man and walked with God. Seeing that the earth was corrupt and filled with violence, God instructed Noah to build an ark in which he, his sons, and their wives, together with male and female of all living creatures, would be saved from the waters. Noah entered the ark in his six hundredth year, and on the 17th day of the second month of that year. The fountains of the Great Deep burst apart and the floodgates of heaven broke open and rain fell for forty days and forty nights until the highest mountains were covered 15 cubits, and all earth-based life perished except Noah and those with him in the ark who survive to be fruitful and multiply.

Noah might carried the spiritual heritage of Tamil along with him. Lord Shiva was the only god worshiped in Kumarikandam during Noah’s period. Shiva was also called as yakovan (king of south).
Ya (south) + kovan (king) = Yakovan -> Yahova -> Yehweh (Jewish god)
As Shiva is having a stack of hair (jaddai/ saddai), he was also called as sadayon in Tamil. It became Elshaddai (god) in Judaism.

8. Decaulian flood myth of Greeks.

The Titan Prometheus advised his son Deucalion to build a chest. All other men perished except for a few who escaped to high mountains. The mountains in Thessaly were parted, and all the world beyond the Isthmus and Peloponnese was overwhelmed. Deucalion and his wife Pyrrha, after floating in the chest for nine days and nights, landed on Parnassus.
  • Decaulian -> Dekaliyan -> Therku aliyan (belonging to south ocean)
  • Pyrrha -> Vyrrha – Veerra  (brave)
  • Parnassus -> Parnasu -> Varnasu -> var navu (ship landing mountain)

So we can read this story as a ship of brave men and brave women of south ocean landed in a mount.

9. Plato Theory of Atlantis

The description of that land given to Solon by Sonchis, priest at Sais; its destruction by earthquake, and submergence, recorded by Athenian philosopher Plato by the story of ‘Atlantis’ in timaeus and critias.  Poseidon was the god of Atlantis. He is considered as god of destruction in Greek mythology. The story concludes with Atlantis falling out of favor with the deities and submerging into the Atlantic Ocean.

This story was matched to Kumarikandam, but he positioned the possible island in Atlantic ocean (Atlantic ocean is named after Atlantis). All the epithets of Poseidon was similar to that of lord Shiva including trishul, bull, destruction etc. Shiva was also named as Yosithon (thinker) in Tamil.
Yosithon -> Posithon -> Poseidon (thinker)

10. Sumerian Eridu Genesis

Ziusudra is king of Suruppak who witnesses the gods’ council and decision in a vision, and understands that something terrible is about to happen. After this, the god Enki, speaking from the other side of a wall, explains Ziusudra what he already has understood. Enki’s advice, to build a big boat to load all the living beings that he had. Ziusudra build a boat and boarded his relatives and craftsmen, and “all the beasts and animals of the field” . The story continues with a description of the Flood, which lasts seven days and nights. After leaving the ark, Ziusudra sacrifices and meets the sun god Utu.

The Sumerians were expert in warfare and the word sumeria was derived from the Tamil word ‘samar’ means fight. Sumerians were the first to bought agriculture to Mesopotamia. We know Murugan was the war god and invented faming technology. So the forefathers of Sumerians were probably one among who survived the deluge of Kumarikandam. The attributes of Ziusudra is also very close to the lessons of Murugan.
Ziusudra -> Ziu Sudra -> Seyo Sutra -> Seyon Suthra (Murugan)

11. Babylonian epic of Glygamesh

The Sumerian hero Gilgamesh  traveled the world in search of a way to cheat death. On one of his journeys, he came across an old man, Utnapishtim, who told Gilgamesh a story from centuries past. The gods brought a flood that swallowed the earth. The gods were angry at mankind so they sent a flood to destroy him. The god Ea, warned Utnapishtim and instructed him to build an enormous boat to save himself, his family, and “the seed of all living things.” He does so, and the gods brought rain which caused the water to rise for many days. When the rains subsided, the boat landed on a mountain, and Utnapishtim set loose first a dove, then a swallow, and finally a raven, which found land. The god Ishtar, created the rainbow and placed it in the sky, as a reminder to the gods and a pledge to mankind that there would be no more floods.

This story of Gligamesh is matched to Kumarikandam theory. The Gilgamesh could be a king of Babylonia, but he is named after Murugan and appended with Muruga’s attributes in the later era. Murugan asked Tamils to have more children which will helpful for them to do vast agriculture. So Tamils named murugan as Kameshwaran with his ‘vel’ representing male semen.
Gilgamesh -> Gil Gamesh -> Bel Kamesh -> Vel Kamesh (Murugan)

12. Matsya Puranam of Hindu

Satyavratan, the king of pre-ancient Tamil and a devotee of Vishnu, who later was known as Manu was washing his hands in a river when a little fish swam into his hands and pleaded with him to save its life. He put it in a jar, which it soon outgrew. He then moved it to a tank, a river and then finally the ocean but to no avail. The fish then revealed himself to be Vishnu and told him that a deluge would occur within seven days that would destroy all life. The fish told Manu that at the end of Kali yugam, the mare who lived at the bottom of the ocean would open her mouth to release a poisonous fire. The fire will burn the whole universe, gods, constellations and everything. The seven clouds of doomsday would then flood the earth until everything was a single ocean. Therefore, the fish instructed Satyavratan to take “all medicinal herbs, all the varieties of seeds, and accompanied by the seven saints” along with the serpent Vasuki and other animals and board a boat that the gods had built.

13. Chinese flood myth

The Chinese civilization was concentrated at the bank of Yellow river near present day Xian. It was believed that the severe flooding along the river bank was caused by dragons living in the river who were being angered by the mistakes of the people.There are many sources of flood myths in ancient Chinese literature.
In Shujing (book of history) Emperor Yao is facing the problem of flood waters that reach to the Heavens. This is the backdrop for the intervention of the hero Da Yu, who succeeds in controlling the floods. He goes on to found the first Chinese dynasty. Shanhaijing, the “Classic of the Mountain & Seas,” ends with a similar story of Da Yu spending ten years to control a deluge whose floodwaters overflowed to heaven. Text of Shuowen Jiezi mention Nüwa who repairs the broken heavens after a great flood or other calamity, and repopulates the world with people.

14. Bundaba flood myth of Australian aboringines

Some children who found the “winking” owl in a tree and plucked out all its feathers. They forced a grass reed through its nose and treated the bird most shamefully. The bird flew without wings, into the heavens and showed himself to Ngowungu, the Great Father. Ngowungu became very angry and decided to drown the people. Later the people saw a small cloud rising which grew bigger and bigger till it spread all over the sky.

With the rain and thunder was a terrible wind which broke great limbs off trees and rooted up others.  The salt water, the sea, came pouring over the ranges from the north. The flood rose higher and higher till all the land was covered except the tops of two or three mountains.
From further west a man and his wives with a dog were battling their way in a canoe when a bird with a leaf in its mouth flew in front of them showing them the way to Mt. Broome. They landed on a mountain and survive the flood. All other people drowned.

15. Popol Vuh flood myth of mayans

Huracan (“one-legged”) was a wind and storm god. Huracan caused the Great Flood after the first humans angered the gods because, being made of wood, they were unable to engage in worship. Huracan lived in the windy mists above the floodwaters and spoke “earth” until land came up again from the seas. Humans had become monkeys, but later, real people would emerge, and three men and four women repopulate the world after the flood.

16. African flood myth

Many African cultures have an oral tradition of a flood including the Kwaya, Mbuti, Maasai, Mandin, and Yoruba peoples. The African Asante designate their patrilinear groups as ntoro, which means water or river or semen. The custom of water divination is found in sub saharan Africa where water a judging element in ordeals believed to demonstrate the judgment of the gods.

This whole flood stories can be concluded as:

  • The Flood was a judgement upon evil, It was sent by to drown all men.
  • A man and his family in a boat along with his animals and plants are saved.
  • All the land was drowned and the boat is landed on the mountain.
  • All living men and animals are descendants of those who survived the flood.

By closely observing them, we can say that every flood story is pointed to Kumarikandam deluge. These stories depict that their civilization is started after a great deluge in the south. But  only sangam literature put forward the traits of a major civilization long before the deluge. Also by decoding the etymology of names of the epic heroes, we recognize their relation to Tamil culture.
Well, Extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidences..

17. Drowned Micro continent theory

Dating of Zircon from beach sand

Evidence of a drowned “micro continent” has been found in sand grains from the beaches of Mauritius by a new study in the British journal Nature Communications. Mauritius was a relatively young island and, being formed from ocean lava, would not naturally

contain zircon, a tough mineral that doesn’t weather easily. If zircon older than nine million years was found on Mauritius, it would be good evidence of the presence of buried continental material. Finding zircons in sand is one thing, finding them within a rock is a more convincing evidence. This rock samples gave ages consistent with the ages of known continental rocks in Madagascar and India conclude that they’re once a tiny part of a much larger “supercontinent”.

18. Burckle crater

Location and impact of Burckle crator

Burckle crater is an undersea feature about 29 kilometres in diameter, located in southwestern Indian Ocean. Holocene Impact Working Group (HIWG) propose that it was formed by a very large-scale meteorite impact event, possibly resulting from a comet. They triangulate this phenomena by studying prehistoric chevron dune formations in Australia and Madagascar. The chevron dunes are long wedge shaped sediment deposit observed on coastlines that may caused by mega tsunamis. They consider the possibility that a comet, or the remains of one, hit the ocean floor, with subsequent mega tsunamis creating the dune formations which allowed the crater to be pinpointed.
This study was done by HIWG in 2006. But sangam literature has spoken about this before two thousand years ago. Cilappatikāram clearly mention that the pandya kingdom of Kumarikandam was come to an end because of a deluge caused by a ‘burning Vel’ from the sky. This burning Vel can be a comet.

19. Wadge bank

Wadge bank is a continental shelf at the southern most tip of Indian peninsula extends about 50 nautical mile from Kanyakumari. This 4000 sq miles area is a major fishing ground and so rich in marine biodiversity. Most importantly this is a major feeding and breeding region of fishes in Indian ocean. This attract many fisheries scientist for scientific fisheries research, oceanography studies, ecological studies etc
According to the research done by IOCRF, they discovered the evidences of an ancient port. The marine researcher Orissa Balu identify this place as old harbour of Kumarikandam. Using this wadge bank concept, his team started marking the fisheries breeding points in Indian ocean by integrating with fisher man. Detailed surveying in the marked regions prove the presence sunken islands.

20. Other sunken lands

Sangam literature give reference to 20000 places in Kumarikandam, IOCRF and Mr. Orissa Balu has marked 9000 sunken islands in Indian Ocean till now using remote sensing spatial imaging.

Sixty five sunken micro islands found – 45m under the sea, 21Km from Poombuhar

Marikiran island 53 Km from Kanyakumari

Seventeen micro islands found – 8 Km from Lakshadweep such as Elikalpeni bank, Agatti island, Perumal par etc

A rock at the middle of sea which is at 8km from Kanyakumari port with the name  aadumechan parai (goat herding rock). Why should people name a rock at the middle of sea as goat herding rock?

A wall of 2km length and 7m height is found 40m under the sea located 16km from Pondicherry. This wall is then proven to be a pure human architecture. This wall is mentioned in pathupattu of sangam literature as a ‘wall of giant sleeping camel’ in Mathilodu peru pattinam.

Similar walls are found at 40m under the sea near Pattinapakkam and Paravelkadu.

Old Kalingarajapuram temple found at 7m under the sea, 2Km from Thengai pattinam.

Eight hundred and seventy micro islands found near Maldives using crowd physics

The Saya de Malha Bank, largest submerged ocean bank in the world is found between Seychelles and Mauritius. The research proved that the geography of Lanka mentioned in Vatmiki ramayana including Niraksha Lanka, Lankogini kode, Akshayalanka are perfectly matched with geography of Saya de Malha.

Rive photographs of ancient building remains founded under 35m with 650000 sq km near Diego Garcia, Saya de Melha and Ile Anglaise

Living plant fossils of Lakshadweep sea.

21. Common Language Theory

William Marsters studied the effect of one common language from Madagascar to America and find 17 common words used in various languages. This study was now extrapolate by modern scholars and the concluded that out of 6900 languages, there are 475 common words out of which 300 words are Tamil words.

R Balakrishnan IAS published a paper which proves that about 600 words used in Indus valley civilization was Tamil words.
Another study on tribal languages in the world confirm that the common word for mother in most of the language is either angaa / ayi / aatha / amma / annai are pure Tamil words.

Presently, Mr. Orissa Balu has conducted a research on ‘Human Migration on Turtle behaviour to ocean currents’. In this research he uncovered the etymology of more than two hundred sea related words and authenticate that they are of Tamil origin like navy (navai), anchor (anguram), catamaran (kattumaram), keel (keezh) etc
He done exceptionally well to list the existence of 18740 Tamil named towns outside India.
Some of them are:
  • Brazil : Marakanam
  • Argentina : Catumaraca
  • Chili : Valparais
  • Peru : Machu
  • Alaska : Inian
  • Canada : Aye, vellore
  • USA : comatchi, Amma
  • Hawaii island : Waimanalo
  • Columbia : Kootenai
  • Mexico : Tamalipus, Thikal
  • Egypt : Kannan
  • Guyana : Annai
  • West Indies : Arima
  • Sudan : kudumi, malaikal
  • Norway : Ooran
  • Germany : Essen
  • Spain : Mala
  • Catalonia : catalan
  • Italy : elini
  • Belgium : Namur, walli
  • Greece : Kalady, Marathoni
  • Turkey: kalamar, Adiyaman
  • Syria : Kilavan
  • Georgia : Matani
  • Iran : Mazhendran, Palani
  • Turkmenistan : Murughab
  • Madagascar : manakarai, Sambava
  • Tanzania : Thenkanikai
  • Kenya : Muruka, Murughuru
  • South Africa : Karuman
  • Russia : Amaur
  • Afganistan : Korkai, Kaveri, Puli
  • Pakistan : Vanchi, Chola, Pandiyan
  • Uzbekistan : Kamashi, Navoi
  • Nepal : Mahligai, Singkam
  • Thailand : Chol, Pattani
  • Singapore : Kadayanallor, Karikal
  • Sumatra : calang
  • Burma : Tamilakanchi
  • Srilanka: Kilavanur, Velvettithurai
  • Philippines : Calappan, Pandi
  • Malaysia : Akkarai seemai
  • Figgi : Kadavul
  • Indonesia : Madura, Thenmanthan
  • China : Pandiyan
  • Korea : Alayur, Palan
  • Japan : Marudai, Aai
  • Australia : Pallamalawa,Thoongam

There are even more evidences like NASA’s proof for three giant floods, 117 years of Nostraric language research where Tamil is proven to be one of the first four language of world, Presence of M-130 gene (worlds most ancient gene) among Tamils that I’m yet to explore more. The more I read, the more I’m convinced that it is definitely not a myth, but a sunken land which was once a cradle of civilization.

It was when most part of the world was barren and barbaric, Tamils of Kumarikandam wrote about Nagarigam, Panpadu, Kalatcharam, Illaram, Turaivaram, Kadavul vazhipadu, Uzhavu, Nesavu, Kalavinai, Kottram, Arasiyal, Kalvi, Iyal, Isai, Nadakam, Udainul, Maruthuvam, Maninottam, Oviyam, Uruvam, Kattidam, Poruvinai, Ponnul, Ithal matriyam, Maranul, Mohanul, Mayai, Vasiyam, Manthiram, Pakidi, Purali, Seivinai, Peiottal, Karavadanul, Udalnul, Kavalnul, Ilakananul, Mozhinul, Aralnul, Porulnul, Imbanul, Marainul, Pattangunul, Alavainul, Eranamnul, Vaananul, Kanitham, Kanakk, Udalkurinul, Ullnul, Kananul, Mulnul, Poothanul, Nilanul, Neernul, Nuthayalnul, Kozhinul, Ooganul, Anainul, Varalarnul and Thinainul. This land is worth exploring!

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